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CSAP 



Center for 
Substance Abuse 
Prevention 



Substance Abuse and Mental 
Health Services Administration 



SUBSTANCE ABUSE RESOURCE GUIDE 



■:■■■,?:.':"■..■ 



Suicide 



Substance abuse is frequently associated with suicide. For 
instance, high school students who view themselves nega- 
tively, who are depressed, or who find little meaning in 
their lives are more likely to consider suicide and to abuse 
drugs. While no cause-and-effect relationship between the 
use of alcohol or other substances has been established in 
research to date, the use of such substances often is a 
contributing factor, and the research does indicate several 
possible explanations. First, the use of alcohol, other sub- 
stances, or both may reduce inhibitions and impair the 
judgment of someone contemplating suicide and thus 
make the act of suicide more likely. Second, the use of 
substances by family members or the individual may 
aggrevate other risk factors for suicide such as depression or 
other mental illnesses. 

This resource guide presents recent research on the rela- 
tionship between suicide and substance abuse. The first 
section includes information on the connection between 
substance abuse and suicide. The second section provides 
national databases that are useful for the study of suicide 
and a list of organizations concerned about suicide. 

Nelba Chavez, Ph.D 

Administrator 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 





*e^°° 

Books 1 

Booklets, Brochures, 

Fact Sheets, and Reports 3 

Magazines 

and Newsletters 5 

Classroom Materials 

and Kits 6 

Videos, Posters, 

and Other Items 7 

Studies and Articles 8 

Organizations 

and Internet Sites 13 



- 



■I 



Ruth Sanchez-Way, Ph.D 

Acting Director, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 

OMH-RC-Knowledge Center 

5515 Security Lane, Suite 101 

Rockville, MD 20852 

1-800-444-6472 



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S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 
bstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention 



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The listing of materials or programs in this resource guide does not constitute or imply endorsement 
by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the Public Health Service, the Substance Abuse and 
Mental Health Services Administration, or the Department of Health and Human Services. The 
materials have been reviewed for accuracy, appropriateness, and conformance with public health 
principles. 

This Substance Abuse Resource Guide was compiled from a variety of publications and data bases 
and represents the most current information to date. It is not an all-inclusive listing of materials on 
this topic. This guide will be updated regularly, and your comments or suggestions are welcome. To 
suggest information or materials that might be included in future editions, please write to 
SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI), P.O. Box 2345, 
Rockville,MD 20847-2345. 



Produced by SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, Lucinda 
Myers, editor. 

For further information on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs, call 800-729-6686, 301-468-2600, or 
TDD 800-487-4889. Or visit us on our World Wide Web site at http://www.health.org. 



Please feel free to be a "copy cat," and make all the copies you want. You 
have our permission! 




itis 



Coping With Teen Suicide 

Suicide is the second leading cause of 
death among teenagers. This book is di- 
rected to teens contemplating suicide and 
anyone who is close to them. Employing 
anonymous case histories, the author ex- 
plores contributing factors such as societal 
stress, challenges of adolescent develop- 
ment, and the special problems of gay and 
lesbian teens. Depression is cited as an im- 
portant symptom and stage of the process 
leading to suicide. The book includes 
chapters on "Mistaken Thinking" (a sense 
of limited options and illusions about the 
nature of death), coping skills, and the 
plight of surviving relatives and friends. 



Author. Murphy, ). 

Year: 1999 

Format: Book 

Length: 125 pages 

Topic: Teenage suicide 

Target Audience: Teens (grade 6 
and up) 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $1 7.95 



The Harvard Medical School Guide to 



This book is designed to help clinicians 
identify patients at risk for suicide and out- 
lines appropriate steps to reduce the risk. It 
explains methods for determining the risk 
level for suicidal or at-risk patients, rec- 
ommends a suicide assessment protocol 
that can easily be included into clinical 
practice, and provides guidelines for inter- 
vening when people risk harming them- 
selves. The subject populations include 
adolescents; the physically ill; and those 
with major mental illness, alcoholism, and 
borderline personality disorder. 



Year 1998 

Format: Book 

Length: 704 pages 

Topic: Suicide assessment and 
intervention 

Target Audience: Clinicians 



Availability: Bookstores or 
contact Jossey-Bass Publishers, 
350 Sansome Street, San 
Francisco, CA 94104; 415- 
433-1 740; 
www. josseybass. com 

Cost: $59.95 



Prevention Materials for Suicide 



The Suicidal Mind 

The Suicidal Mind differs from many other 
books on suicide by asserting that the pri- 
mary means of preventing suicide is not 
the study of the brain, but the study of 
human emotions because psychological 
pain is the primary cause of suicide. The 
book provides insight into suicidal impulses 
and suggestions on how to counteract 
them. 



Author Shneidman, E. 

Year 1998 

Format: Book 

Length: 208 pages 

Topic: Suicide 

Target Audience: Families, 
physicians, people contemplating 
suicide 



Availability: Bookstores, or 
contact Oxford University 
Press, 1 98 Madison Avenue, 
New York, NY 10016; 212- 
726-6000; www.oup.co.uk 

Cost: $13.95 



Making Sense of Suicide: An In-Depth Look 
at Why People Kill Themselves 

Making Sense of Suicide is an introduction 
to the background and prevention of suici- 
dal behaviors. It provides relevant informa- 
tion for all professionals who may encoun- 
ter people considering suicide. 



Author Lester, D. 

Year 1997 

Format: Book 

Length: 224 pages 

Topic: Suicide 

Target Audience: Health profes- 
sionals, educators, and parents 



Availability: Bookstores or 
contact Charles Press Publish- 
ers, P.O. Box 15715 Phila- 
delphia, PA 19103; 215-545- 
8933; 
www.charlespresspub.com 

Cost: $22.95 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Mists, Bmism, 
fast Ms, and Rstsrts 



Patterns of Alcohol Use Among Adolescents 

and Associations with Emotional and 
Behavioral Problems 

This report provides data showing the rela- 
tionship among the emotional state, 
health, behaviors, and alcohol use. The 
data cannot be used to provide a causal 
relationship because they are not longitu- 
dinal, but examining correlations of fre- 
quency of alcohol use with problems pro- 
vides some evidence that an increase in 
the amount consumed is associated with 
problem behaviors. 



Author Greenblatt, J. 

Organization: Office of Applied 
Studies 

Year 2000 

Format: Report 

Length: 28 pages 

Topic: Adolescent alcohol abuse 

Target Audience: Prevention 
program planners, general audi- 
ence 



Availability: Office of Applied 
Studies, 5600 Fishers Lane, 
Room 16C-06, Rockville, MD 
20857; 301-443-6239; 
www.samhsa.gov/oas/oasftp. 
htm 

Cost: Free 



Year-End Emergency Department Data from 
the Drug Abuse Warning Network 

This series of reports from the Drug Abuse 
Warning Network examines trends in the 
number of drug mentions in emergency 
department episodes. The study also 
compares the incidence of specific drug 
mentions in major metropolitan areas. In- 
cluded are persons ages 6 and older who 
were treated in the hospital's emergency 
department with a presenting problem that 
was induced by or related to the nonmedi- 
cal use of a licit drug or any use of an illicit 
drug that was taken because of depend- 
ence, suicide attempt or gesture, or psy- 
chic effects. This year-end data summa- 
rizes the preliminary data from July to De- 
cember 1998 and compares the trends 
with the previous 20 years. 



Year 1999 

Format: Report 

Length: 1 22 pages 

Topic: Drug abuse trends in 
the United States 

Target Audience: Prevention 
program planners, community 
leaders, statisticians 



Availability: SAMHSA's 
National Clearinghouse for 
Alcohol and Drug Informa- 
tion, P.O. Box 2345, 
Rockville, MD 20847, 
800-729-6686; 
www.health.org 

Cosh Free 



Prevention Materials for Suicide 



Suicide Research Program 

This report contains abstracts of suicide 
research projects funded in fiscal year 
1999 by the National Institute of Mental 
Health (NIMH). NIMH extramural support 
for research projects focused on suicide or 
containing large suicide components to- 
taled approximately $15 million. 



Year. 1999 

Format: Report 

Length: 41 pages 

Topic: Suicide 

Target Audience: Researchers, 
health professionals 



Availability: National Institute 
for Mental Health; 6001 Ex- 
ecutive Boulevard, Room 
8184, Bethesda, MD 20892; 
301-443-4513; 
www.nimh.nih.gov 
Also available online at 
www.nimh.nih.gov/research/s 
uicide.htm 

Cosh Free 



Making the link: Alcohol and Other Drags 
aal Suicide 

This fact sheet explains the relationship of 
alcohol and drug use and persons contem- 
plating suicide. 



Organization: Center for 
Substance Abuse Prevention 

Year 1995 

Format: Fact sheet 

Length: 1 page 

Topic: Connection between 
substance abuse and suicide 

Target Audience: General public, 
high-risk youth, young adults, 
community service groups 



Availability: SAMHSA's Na- 
tional Clearinghouse for Alco- 
hol and Drug Information, 
P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 
20847-2345; 800-729-6686; 
www.health.org 

Cosh Free 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 




74 

MiNewliM 



Archives of Suicide Research 

This magazine, Archives of Suicide Re- 
search, is the official journal of the Interna- 
tional Academy of Suicide Research. Its 
articles focus on all aspects of suicide. 



Yean Published quarterly 

Format: Magazine 

Length: Varies 

Topic: Suicide 

Target Audience: General 
audience 



Availability: Kluwer Academic 
Publishers, P.O. Box 358, 
Accord Station, Hingham, MA 
02018-0358; 
www.priory.com/kluwer.htm 

Cost: $1 35 for annual sub- 
scription 



Suicide and life-Threatening Behavior 

The official publication of the American 
Association of Suicidology (AAS), Suicide 
and Life-Threatening Behavior is dedicated 
to the understanding and prevention of 
suicide. 



Organization: American 
Association of Suicidology 

Year Published quarterly 

Format: Magazine 

Length: Varies 

Topic: Suicide 

Target Audience: Members of 
the American Association of 
Suicidology 



Availability: American Associa- 
tion of Suicidology, 4201 
Connecticut Ave., NW., Suite 
408, Washington, DC 20008; 
202-237-2280; 
www.suicidology.org 

Cost: Free with membership 
in AAS 



Surviving Soicide 

Published by the American Association of 
Suicidology (AAS), this newsletter is written 
for and by survivors of suicide. 



Organization: American 
Association of Suicidology 

Year Published quarterly 

Format: Newsletter 

Length: Varies 

Topic: Suicide 

Target Audience: Suicide 
survivors, members of AAS 



Availability: American Associa- 
tion of Suicidology, 4201 
Connecticut Ave., NW., Suite 
408, Washington, DC 20008; 
202-237-2280; 
www.suicidology.org 

Cosh Free with membership 
in AAS, $20 per year for non- 
members 



Prevention Materials for Suicide 





mmmts 



American Indian Life Skills Curriculum 

Unfortunately, suicide is a significant prob- 
lem for many adolescents in Native Ameri- 
can Indian populations. This curriculum for 
middle and high school students is de- 
signed to reduce suicidal thinking and be- 
havior. Created in collaboration with stu- 
dents and community members from the 
Zuni Pueblo and the Cherokee Nation of 
Oklahoma, it addresses key issues in Na- 
tive American Indian adolescents' lives and 
teaches such life skills as communication, 
problem solving, depression, stress man- 
agement, anger regulation, and goal set- 
ting. Taking a skill-based approach, the 
course first increases awareness and 
knowledge of suicide, then teaches specific 
methods to help a peer turn away from 
suicidal thinking and seek help from an 
appropriate help giver. 



Author: Lafromboise, T. 

Yean 1996 

Format: Workbook 

Length: 408 pages 

Topic: Suicide prevention 

Target Audience: Teachers and 
educators of Native American 
high school students 



Availability: Bookstores, or 
contact University of Wiscon- 
sin Press, c/o Chicago Distri- 
bution Center, 1 1 030 South 
Langley Avenue, Chicago, IL 
60628; 800-621-8476; www. 
wisc.edu/wisconsinpress/ 

Cosh $22.95 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Mm, Posters, 
sail Otter Items 



Reach Out With Hope 

Reaching Out With Hope presents risk fac- 
tors and guidelines for assisting adults in 
suicidal crisis, and includes a study guide. 



Over two-thirds of the Americans that 
commit suicide each year have seen a phy- 
sician within a month of their death. For 
this reason, it is very important for primary 
care physicians to recognize signs of de- 
pression and potential suicide in their pa- 
tients. This film provides guidelines for as- 
sessing the suicide risk of their patients in- 
cluding depression warning signs, particu- 
lar populations at risk, and appropriate in- 
tervention strategies. 



Yean 1997 

Format: Video 

Length: 19 minutes and 
33-page study guide 

Topic: Suicide 

Target Audience: Prevention 
program planners, friends and fam- 
ily of suicidal adults, general audi- 
ence 



Availability: Suicide Informa- 
tion and Education Center, 
#201, 1615-10* Avenue, 
SW., Calgary, Alberta, Canada 
T3C0J7; 403-245-3900; 
www.siec.ca 

Cost: $50 



Ike Suicidal Patient: Assessment and Care 



Yean 1996 

Format: Video 

Length: 1 5 minutes 

Topic: Suicide assessment and 
prevention 

Target Audience: Primary care 
physicians 



Availability: American Foun- 
dation for Suicide Prevention, 
120 Wall Street, 22 nd Floor, 
New York, NY 10005; 888- 
333-AFSP; www.asfp.org 

Cosh $5.95 



Prevention Materials for Suicide 




ail Met 



Cocaine Use Associated with Increased Suicidal 
Behavior in Depressed Alcoholics 

Balak, A; Cornelius, J.; Thase, M.; and 

Salloum, I. 
Addictive Behaviors, 23(1): 119-121, 1998 

This study strived to determine whether de- 
pressed alcoholics who used cocaine would 
display a higher prevalence of suicidal behavior 
and suicidal ideation than depressed alcoholics 
who did not use cocaine. Forty-one depressed 
alcoholics participated in this prospective study 
of consecutively admitted patients. Seventeen 



patients (41.5 percent) had made a suicide at- 
tempt during their current depressive episode, 
and all but one of these attempts occurred dur- 
ing the week before their hospitalization. Ten 
patients used cocaine in the week before hospi- 
talization, and 7 of these 10 had made a suicide 
attempt during that week. In contrast, only 32 
percent of the depressed alcoholics who did not 
use cocaine made a suicide attempt during that 
week. Suicidal ideation was also more prevalent 
in alcoholics who used cocaine. The authors 
conclude that cocaine use is associated with an 
increased prevalence of suicidal behavior and 
suicidal ideation in depressed alcoholics. 



Psychiatric Comorbidity, Suicidal Behavior, and 
Suicidal Ideation in Alcoholics Seeking Treat- 



Driessen, M.; John, U.; Veltrup, C; and 

Weber, J. 
Addiction, 93(6): 889-894, 1998 

This article estimates the impact of coexisting 
disorders for suicidal ideas in 250 alcohol- 
dependent subjects seeking treatment. Suicidal 
behaviors were assessed after detoxification and 
12 months after each subject's discharge. The 
authors found that a history of suicide attempts 



was reported by 29.2 percent and suicidal ideas 
by 14.1 percent, and that suicide attempts were 
reported by 5.4 percent at the follow-up. One 
female patient committed suicide within 6 
months of discharge from the hospital. The 
following comorbidity patterns were associated 
with the greatest risk for suicidal ideas: anxiety 
and depressive disorders, axes I and II disorders, 
and a history of suicide attempt. The authors 
conclude that the importance of psychiatric 
comorbidity for the suicidal risk in alcohol- 
dependent patients is important, while alcohol- 
ism itself appears to be only a moderate risk 
factor. 



Substance Abuse and Suicide: Promoting Resil- 
ience Against Self-Destructive Behavior in Youth 

Forman, S.; and Kalafat, J. 
School Psychology Review, 27(3): 398-406, 
1998 

Substance abuse and suicide have been recog- 
nized as major self-destructive behaviors of 



youth, have strong comorbidity, and have sub- 
stantial overlap with regard to risk and protec- 
tive factors. This article summarizes information 
on these behaviors, risk and protective factors, 
and the effectiveness of existing prevention pro- 
grams. A coordinated, resilience-building pre- 
vention strategy is proposed which addresses 
generic and domain-specific knowledge and 
skills. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Substance Use: Comparison of Adolescent and 
Young Adult Suicide and Accidental Death 

Davis, D.; Riggin, O.; and Sumner, D. 
journal of Addictions Nursing, 10(1): 34-39, 
1998 

In the United States in 1995, 72 percent of all 
deaths between school-age youth and young 
adults resulted from four causes: motor vehicle 
crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicides, 
and suicides. This study examines adolescent 
and young adult suicide and accidental death 



rates in relation to substance use prior to death. 
The results of the study show an alarming in- 
crease in the role of substance use/abuse in 
adolescent and young adult accidental and sui- 
cidal deaths. Substance abuse and mental dis- 
orders are the two most important risk factors in 
attempted and completed adolescent and 
young adult suicide. Also noted as contributing 
to the increase in the adolescent and young 
adult suicide rate is the easy accessibility to 
weapons, either from the home or off the street 
due to the increasing gang and drug trade. 



Soicide Methods and Presence nf Intoxicating 
Ahusable Substances: Seme Clinical and Public 
Health Implications 

Dhossche, D.; Dirk, M.; Ghani, 5.; Isacsson, C; 

and Rich, C. 
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 10(4): 169-175, 

1998 

This article examines the relationship between 
presence of intoxicating abusable substances 
(IAS) at postmortem toxicology and any specific 
suicide method. The study included 179 sui- 
cides of 14- to 88-year-olds from San Diego, 
CA, in 1981-1982, and 225 suicides of 14- to 
92-year-olds from Mobile, AL, in 1990-1995, 
for which comprehensive toxicological exami- 
nation had been conducted. Suicide methods 
were grouped into more immediately 



fatal (MIF) and less immediately fatal (LIF) cate- 
gories. The most common method in each cate- 
gory (guns and overdoses, respectively) was ex- 
amined separately as well. The same propor- 
tions of men and women were positive for any 
IAS in both locations. Significantly more of the 
Mobile suicides than the San Diego suicides 
were by MIF methods for both genders, and 
were almost totally attributable to the use of 
guns. The use of guns for suicide in Mobile was 
also significantly higher. Nonetheless, the sui- 
cide rates for men and women in Mobile were 
no higher than for the overall United States. The 
authors concluded that potentially suicidal peo- 
ple should be advised to avoid intoxicating sub- 
stances of any kind. The authors also suggest 
that physicians should avoid prescribing such 
substances to depressed or suicidal patients. 



Prevention Materials for Suicide 



Overdose, Suicide Attempts, and Death Among a 
Cohort of Naltrexone-Treated Opioid Addicts 

Frosch, D.; McCann, M.; Miotto, K.; and Raw- 
son, R. 

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 45(1-2): 131- 
134, 1997 

This article reports on a cohort of naltrexone- 
treated opioid addicts in which there appeared 
to be unusually high rates of overdose, suicidal 
behavior, and death. The participants were as- 
signed to either an intensive psychosocial pro- 



tocol or standard community treatment for 
opioid dependence and given 50 mg. naltrex- 
one to be taken once daily. A battery of meas- 
ures were administered as baseline data, with 
follow-up interviews at 6 and 1 2 months after 
treatment assignment. The results indicated that 
13 participants overdosed within the 12-month 
study period. There were four fatalities, one of 
which was a suicide. Among the nine non-fatal 
overdoses were four suicide attempts. The 
demographic and drug use characteristics of the 
participants are also described. 



Bisk of Soicide Attempts After Benzodiazepine 



Neutel, C; and Patten, S. 

Annals of Epidemiology, 7(8): 568-574, 1997 

This study evaluates suicide attempts in subjects 
recently exposed to benzodiazepines or antide- 
pressants, as compared to unexposed controls. 
A population of 225,796 persons with prescrip- 
tions for benzodiazepines indicated that non- 



antidepressant users had statistically significant 
associations among suicide attempts and ben- 
zodiazepine use, antipsychotic use, and a his- 
tory of past treatment for drug/alcohol abuse. 
The association between benzodiazepine use 
and attempted suicide is especially high for 
non-antidepressant users, the young, and males. 
Physicians should be aware of the high potential 
for suicide attempts when prescribing benzodi- 
azepines for patients in these high-risk groups. 



Role of Drugs and Alcohol in Drhan Minority 
Adolescent Suicide Attempts 

Jones, G. 

Death Studies, 21(2): 189-202, 1997 

This study examines psychopathology and sub- 
stance use in 15 African-American adolescents 
who attempted suicide and a control group 
consisting of 15 African-American adolescents 
who did not attempt suicide. Both groups of 
adolescents and their parents completed ques- 



tionnaires that addressed depression, behavior 
problems, family functioning, and drug and al- 
cohol use. The suicidal youth were found to 
have a significant level of depression in addition 
to a variety of internalizing and externalizing 
behavior disorders. The suicidal youth were at a 
high risk for alcohol and drug abuse. The results 
indicated that suicidal African-American adoles- 
cents used significant amounts of drugs and al- 
cohol, which may be associated with suicidal 
attempts. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Suicide and Alcoholism: Distinguishing Alcoholic 
Patients With and Without Comorhid Drug Abuse 

Caine, £.; Conwell, Y.; Cox, G; Duberstein, P.; 

Forbes, N; and Porsteinsson, A. 
American Journal on Addictions, 6(4): 304-310, 

1997 

This study uses psychological autopsy data to 
test the hypothesis that alcoholic patients with 
comorbid drug use disorders who committed 
suicide (AD) are distinguishable from alcoholic 
suicide victims without a comorbid drug use 
disorder (AL). The dependent variables included 
demographics, suicidal behavior, psychiatric 



symptoms, and medical illness burden. The AL 
group were older, white, and tended to live 
alone. Analyses that controlled for age and sex 
indicated that the AL group were more likely to 
have a comorbid major depression and less 
likely to tell someone they were contemplating 
suicide than was the AD group. Scores 
on a measure of illness burden increased with 
age among the AL group but not the AD 
group, though the latter were more likely 
to be under a physician's care with 
increasing age. These differences should be 
considered when designing prevention meas- 
ures. 



Violence, Suicidally and Alcohol/Drug Use In- 
volvement in Adnlescent Females with a Psy- 
choactive Substance Use Disnrder and Controls 

Barrett, C; Giancola, P.; Lu, S.; Mezzich, A.; 

Parks, S.; and Tarter, R. 
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 

21(7): 1300-1307, 1997 

This study had three objectives: (1) to deter- 
mine the relationship between behavioral dys- 
regulation, negative affectivity, and familial im- 
pairment with violence and suicidality in 161 
adolescent females (ages 1 4 to 18) with a psy- 
choactive substance use disorder and 80 con- 
trols; (2) to determine whether these relations 
are mediated by internalizing and externalizing 
symptomatology; and (3) to determine whether 
severity of alcohol/drug use involvement mod- 



erates the relations between the mediating vari- 
ables with violence and suicidality. Behavioral 
dysregulation, negative affectivity, and familial 
impairment were related to violence, whereas 
only familial impairment was related to suicidal- 
ity. Internalizing symptomatology mediated the 
relation between familial impairment and sui- 
cidality, and was related to violence, whereas 
externalizing symptomatology mediated the re- 
lations between behavioral dysregulation, nega- 
tive affectivity, and familial impairment with 
violence. Severity of substance use involvement 
did not moderate the relations between inter- 
nalizing or externalizing symptomatology with 
suicidality or violence. Internalizing symptoma- 
tology and suicidality correlation was stronger in 
females with a greater degree of substance use 
involvement. 



Prevention Materials for Suicide 



Alcohol and Suicide — Beyond the link at the 
Individual Level 

Rossow, I. 

Addiction, 91(10): 1413-1416, 1996 



This article discusses some theories of how the 
association between alcohol and completed 
suicide is formed. The author discusses some of 
the consistencies and inconsistencies in the em- 
pirical findings as well as some of the future 
challenges for research in this area. 



Alcohol Availability. Alcoholism, and Suicide and 
Homicide 

Lester, D. 

American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 
21(1): 147-150, 1995 

Using R.G. Smart's 1977 measures of alcohol 
availability, use, and abuse, this study explores 
the association of alcohol abuse and availability 



with rates of suicide and homicide in the 
United States. The authors find that suicide 
rates were associated with per capita consump- 
tion, but not with alcohol availability or abuse. 
While alcohol-related variables appear to have 
no affect on statewide homicide rates, alcohol 
consumption was associated with statewide sui- 
cide rates, though not as strongly as divorce 
rates. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 




11 
anil Internet Sites 



American Association of Suicidology 
4201 Connecticut Avenue NW., Suite 408 
Washington, DC 20008 
202-237-2280 
www.suicidology.org 

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention 

120 Wall Street, 22nd Floor 

New York, NY 10005 

888-333-AFSP 

www.asfp.org 

American Psychiatric Association 
DPA DepL SG 
1400 K Street, NW. 
Washington, DC 20005 
202-682-6000 
www.psych.org 

American Psychological Association (APA) 

750 First Street, NE. 

Washington, DC 20002 

202-336-5500 

www.apa.org 

Bureau of Justice Statistics 
810 Seventh Street, NW. 

Washington, DC 20531 
www.oj p. usdoj .gov/bjs 

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention 
5600 Fishers Lane, Rockwall II 
Rockville, MD 20857 
301-443-0365 
www.samhsa.gov/csap 

Decision Support System for Prevention of Substance 

Abuse 

www.preventiondss.org 



National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug 

Information 

P.O. Box 2345 

Rockville, MD 20847 

800-729-6686 

www.health.org 

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug 

Dependence 

12 West 21 Street 

New York, NY 10010 

800-NCACALL 

www.ncadd.org/ 

National Depressive and Manic-Depressive 

Association 

730 North Franklin Street, Suite 501 

Chicago, IL 60610-3526 

800-826-3632 

www.ndmda.org/ 

National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Bethesda, MD 20892 
www.nih.gov 

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) 

6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 81 84 

Bethesda, MD 20892 

301-443-4513 

www.nimh.nih.gov 

National Suicide Hotline 
1-800-SUICIDE 

Partnership for a Drug-Free America 
405 Lexington Avenue, 16th Floor 
New York, NY 101 74 
212-922-1560 
www.drugfreeamerica.org 



Prevention Materials for Suicide 



Partnerships Against Violence Network (Pavnet) 
www.pavnet.org 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services 

Administration (SAMHSA) 

Room 12-105 Parklawn Building 

5600 Fishers Lane 

Rockville, MD 20857 

www.samhsa.gov 

Suicide Awareness/Voices of Education 

P.O. Box 24507 

Minneapolis, MN 55424 

612-946-7998 

www.save.org 



Suicide Information and Education Centre (SIEQ 

#201 1 61 5-1 Oth Avenue SW. 

Calgary, Alberta T3C0J7 

403-245-3900 

www.siec.ca/ 

Suicide Prevention Advocacy Network 
5034 Odin's Way 
Marietta, GA 30068 
888-649-1 366 
www.spanusa.org 



14 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Other resource guides in this series include: 



Children Witnessing 
Vinlence and 
Substance Abuse 



SMA 00-3449 




Yuuth Firearm 
Vinlence 

SMA 00-3442 

m 




Hate Crimes 

SMA 00-3445 




Vinlence Against 
the Elderly 

SMA 00-3443 




Vinlence: An Overview 
nf Its Relatinnship tn 
Substance Abuse 



SMA 00-3326 



VIOLENCE 



OUftCS 




Gangs 

SMA 00-3444 




Vinlence Against 


Vinlence in the 


Vinlence in 


Wnmen 


Media 


Schnnls 


SMA 00-3450 


SMA 00-3447 


SMA 00-3446 






DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 00-3448 
Printed 2000 



CSAP 



Center for 
Substance Abuse 
Prevention 



Substance Abuse and Mental 
Health Services Administration 

www.samhsa.gov